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Derma Rolling/Micro-Needling: How-To Maximize Its Benefits

derma rolling micro-needling

Derma Rolling Micro-Needling History

Call it derma rolling, micro-needling or collagen induction therapy, the cosmetic procedure in which tiny needles are rolled or stamped and inserted into the skin’s layer may sound torturous, but it is actually quite beneficial. The first known micro needling-type procedure was performed by a German dermatologist, Ernst Kromayer. By using different-sized, motorized dental burs, Kromayer treated scars, birthmarks, and hyperpigmentation.

The derma rolling procedure with which we are familiar in this day and age was initially used in 1995 by Dr. Desmond Fernandes in Philadelphia to address wrinkles and scars with hypodermic needles. Dr. Fernandes also designed a small needle stamp to prompt and enhance collagen production. Since then research has proven its effectiveness against many skin conditions.

Derma Rolling Micro-Needling Benefits

  • Minimizes scars and stretch marks
  • Increases skin elasticity and thickness
  • Reduces discoloration and wrinkles
  • Maximizes product absorption

The Science Behind Derma Rolling Micro-Needling

By inducing microscopic wounds, derma rolling encourages collagen and elastin production. Collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and is responsible for holding together connective tissue like skin, muscles, tendons, cartilage, and bones.

Despite how painful micro-needling may seem, it’s really a minimally invasive procedure with very little downtime, if any at all. The recovery process mainly depends on the length of the needles used. The longer the needles, the longer the recovery time (because the wounds are deeper).

Not All Derma Rollers are Equal

With a flood of derma rollers on the market, it’s not so obvious to recognize the differences, but not all derma rollers are manufactured the same. Some may consist of titanium needles, others of stainless steel. Although, titanium needles seem to be more durable, stainless steel is overall stronger and more hygenic, making it the preferred metal by medical professionals.

Another not-so-obvious, but significant difference is the assembly of the needles. Some derma rollers have the needles on a wheel, much like a circular saw blade, whereas other rollers have individualized needles secured in a silicone mold. The saw-like needles get larger as they attach to the base, which causes inconsistent punctures to the skin. On the other hand, the individual needles have the same diameter from end to end. The concept of derma rolling/micro-needling is to puncture the skin and create small, neat wounds. The individual needles achieve this concept by nicely perforating the skin, whereas the needles on a wheel tear into the skin, damaging more than creating a controlled wound.

What Needle Size To Use

The needle size will depend on what skin condition is to be treated. We recommend seeing a professional for needle sizes greater than 1.0 mm.

ConcernsNeedle length (millimeters)
deep acne scars, surgical scars, stretch marks1.5 to 2.0 mm (see your dermatologist)
skin discoloration, enlarged pores (.25 to .5), and shallow acne scars0.25 to 1.0 mm (start with the smallest, a combination of smaller and larger needles is ideal)
wrinkles, uneven skin tone or texture, sun-damaged, or sagging skin0.5 to 1.5 mm (a combination of smaller and larger needles is ideal)


Do not use a derma roller when/on:

  • presence of active acne
  • infection of herpes or warts
  • eczema
  • rash, open wounds/sores
  • skin infection
  • sunburnt skin
  • using retinol
  • keloids or keloidal tendency
  • on coagulant, chemo-, or radiotherapy

How To Use Your Derma Roller

It is important to sterilize your roller before and after a treatment in order to avoid any hazards and unwanted infections. Refer to the steps below to help ensure a safe at home treatment.

Step 1: Disinfect roller

Disinfect your derma roller by letting it soak in 70 percent isopropyl alcohol for approximately 5 to 10 minutes. Rinse off with hot water.

Step 2: Cleanse and prepare skin

Thoroughly wash your face using a gentle cleanser. If you’re using a derma roller with needles longer than 0.5 mm, wipe down your face with 70 percent isopropyl alcohol before the rolling process.

Step 3: Apply numbing cream, if needed

Depending on your pain tolerance, you may need to apply an anesthetic cream.

When using a numbing cream, follow the instructions the manufacturer provides, and make sure to completely wipe it off with 70 percent isopropyl alcohol before you start rolling! 

Step 4: Roll with it

Just like the instrument itself, the technique is key. Begin by dividing up your face into sections like below. Avoid rolling in the eye sockets area.

It is not necessary to roll diagonally as it causes too much stress. Keep in mind that the idea is to only perforate the skin in such a way that it can heal quickly.

Roll vertically in one direction 6 to 8 times, depending on your skin tolerance and sensitivity, and make sure to lift up the roller after each pass before repeating. Avoid rolling back and forth by lifting the derma roller after each pass. This will prevent “track marks” from appearing, which can look like a cat clawed your face. After rolling the same area 6 to 8 times, move on to the next area, and repeat until the entire section of skin is treated. Rolling away from your eyes prevents any accidents.

Once the vertical rolls are done, go back over each area and repeat the process in the horizontal direction. By the end of this entire procedure, each area should have been rolled 12 to 16 times — 6 to 8 horizontally, 6 to 8 vertically.

Step 5: Rinse with water

After micro-needling, rinse your skin with cool (not cold) water only.

Step 6: Clean roller

Clean your derma roller with dishwasher soap free from dyes and perfumes. (Dish soap dissolves the oils and proteins better than other soaps.) With hot water, create a sudsy mixture in a larger container, swish around the roller, making sure the roller doesn’t hit the sides of the container. (Hitting the sides of the container may damage the needles.)

Step 7: Sterilize roller

Sterilize your derma roller again by soaking it in the 70 percent isopropyl alcohol for 10 minutes. Keep it safely tucked away in its case.

Step 8: Keep it Simple Skincare

Follow up derma rolling with a simple skincare routine free of chemicals, exfoliants, and active ingredients like benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, tretinoin, etc. Avoid sun rays the next few days and wear sunscreen, as always.

How often should you derma roll?

The frequency for derma rolling also depends on the length of needles that will be used. Below is a guideline for the number of times you can use a derma roller within a given time frame.

Needle length (millimeters)How often
0.25 mmevery other day
0.5 mm1 to 2 times a week (starting with less)
1.0 mmevery 10 to 14 days
1.5 mmonce every 3 to 4 weeks; best done by professional
2.0 mmevery 6 weeks (avoid this length for home use)

Be certain your skin is completely recovered before starting another session! Healing is key in collagen production. Too little time in healing can produce the opposite results.


To maximize results, use products that focus on hydrating, healing, and increasing collagen production. Apply a serum packed with collagen, hyaluronic acid, vitamin E, even niacinamide. Be sure to wear sunscreen and stay away from direct sunlight. We love the Bioscience Peptide Serum.

What to expect after micro-needling?

After rolling, the skin may:

  • be red and feel like a sunburn, the degree of which all depends on the needle size
  • have minimal swelling
  • feel like your face is pulsating because the blood is circulating

There will be some minor redness for about two or three days, and the skin might start peeling. If peeling occurs, do not pick at it! The skin will shed naturally with time.


We would love to se your results. Share your before and after pictures with us on Instagram.

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Sweet Potato and Pomegranate Salad – Food for Your Skin (and Your Tummy)

Food for your skin

Ingredients Good for Your Skin

Sweet Potatoes

Beta-carotene is an antioxidant that gives the orange color of the sweet potato and is converted to vitamin A. Vitamin A helps skin elasticity, promotes skin cell turnover, and ultimately contributes to soft, youthful-looking skin. Sweet potatoes are also a great source of vitamins C and E – both of which keep our complexion glowing while protecting our skin from harmful free radicals.


High in vitamin C and a variety of potent antioxidants, pomegranates have been used for centuries as a healing medicinal fruit known to reduce inflammation. They also protect our body from free radical damage and help preserve collagen in the skin.

Olive Oil

The good monounsaturated fats offered by the oil are associated with increased skin elasticity and firmness, keeping your skin looking younger.


Citrus fruits like lemons are high in vitamin C, a primary antioxidant that protects cells from harmful free radicals. Vitamin C found in lemons may help decrease dry skin, skin wrinkling, and sun damage.

Red Onions

Beyond providing flavor, onions provide important nutritional value proven by various onion health studies throughout the years.

They are high in Vitamin C, a good source of dietary fiber, and folic acid. Onions also contain calcium, iron, and contain quercetin, a flavonoid (which is a category of antioxidants).

Antioxidants are compounds that help delay or slow the oxidative damage to cells and tissue of the body. Studies have indicated that quercetin helps to eliminate free radicals in the body, protects and regenerates vitamin E (a powerful antioxidant), and inactivates the harmful effects of chelate metal ions.

With all the good the onion does for your body, it’s no wonder our body sheds tears… tears of joy!

Sweet Potato, Pomegranate, and Feta Salad

2 Sweet Potatoes cut into 1/2 in cubes

1/2 cup pomegranate seeds

1/3 cup (vegan) feta

1/2 finely cut red onion or shallots

2 TBsp extra virgin olive oil

1/2-1 freshly squeezed lemon

Salt and pepper to taste


Peel and dice sweet potatoes into 1/2 inch cubes. After dicing, arrange in a single layer on a lightly oiled cookie sheet, sprinkle a bit of salt, and roast the sweet potatoes in the oven at 400 F for 15-20 minutes to your liking. (I prefer a bit charred.)

Once browned, remove from the oven and let cool to room temperature.

While cooling, finely slice or dice 1/2 red onion or 2-3 shallots.

Whisk 2 TBsp extra virgin olive oil and approximately 1 freshly squeezed lemon in a medium- to large-sized bowl. Add onions and salt and pepper.

Cut pomegranate and place 1/2 cup of seeds to the side along with 1/3 cup (vegan) feta.

Mix the cooled potatoes into the bowl with the olive oil, lemon juice, and onions.

Fold in the feta and pomegranate seeds.

Best to refrigerate minimum 1 hour or overnight to absorb all flavors.

Let your waistline and skin enjoy the yummy goodness!

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S.O.S. – Save Our Skin – Your Ultimate Guide to Sunscreen

To SPF 30 or to SPF 100? That is the question.

Ultraviolet Rays and Sunscreen

Sunlight consists of many different rays, but ultraviolet rays are the most harmful to us. Two main types of ultraviolet rays that reach the earth’s surface are UVA and UVB. Sunlight has roughly 500 times more UVA rays than UVB. However, the effects of UVB are just as, if not more, detrimental, causing sunburns to malignant melanoma. UVA rays are the culprit of premature skin aging, leaving your skin with discolorations and wrinkles, as well as other types of skin cancer.

The National Weather Service in the U.S. has created an UV Index to rate the strength of ultraviolet rays by region. The rating is on a scale from 0 to 11+, 0 having the least risk. View the map or click on the button below, titled Ultraviolet Index, to find your area’s rating and take the necessary precautions listed in the subsequent table.

Sunscreen US map of UV indices
RatingRiskMinutes To BurnPrecautions
0-2Low60 minutesBroad spectrum sunscreen, UV Sunglasses
3-5Moderate30-45 minutesBroad spectrum sunscreen, UV sunglasses, hat, and umbrella/shade
6-7High15-30 minutesAvoid the sun from the late morning to mid-afternoon, broad spectrum sunscreen, UV sunglasses, hat, and umbrella/shade
8-10Very High15 minutesAvoid the sun from the late morning to mid-afternoon, broad spectrum sunscreen, UV sunglasses, hat, protective clothing , and umbrella/shade
11+Extreme10 minutesAvoid the sun from the late morning to mid-afternoon, broad spectrum sunscreen, UV sunglasses, hat, protective clothing , and umbrella/shade

Although seemingly benevolent, the sunscreen business can be a tricky marketing ploy that targets consumer’s misconceptions and fears. The general misconception is that the higher SPFs yield more protection against the sun’s rays. The obvious fear, besides a bad sunburn, is skin cancer. In 2019 the U.S. FDA proposed to cap SPF limits at 60+, but was interrupted by Covid-19. (To point out, the original limit was SPF 50, but the final drafts of the proposal increased to 60.) The FDA has long believed that SPFs greater than 50 are “inherently misleading.” Australian regulators have long already set an SPF limit at 30, while European and Japanese authorities set the SPF limit at 50.

The truth is, the higher SPFs do not prove to be much more significantly effective than SPF 30. Often times it is assumed that SPF 100 would offer twice as much protection as opposed to SPF 50. However, in actuality, SPF 100 only offers 1% more protection than SPF 50 if applied the same. The application is key here. The slightest variance of application yields dramatically different outcomes when these sunscreens are put to the test in labs.

Chemicals In Sunscreen

Chemicals disguised as skin protectors, but actually causing harm to your body and the environment, have saturated much of the sunscreen product market. From infertility to cancer, these chemicals are secret killers to our bodies and earth’s biomes.

Click on each of the noteworthy, harmful chemicals in your sunscreen below to learn more:


Mainly due to its size, which is up to 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, nanoparticles are insoluble and may be more chemically reactive . The body and environment reacts differently to nanomaterials than the same material that is non-nano. Although manufacturers claim that nanoparticles are safe, scientists show concerning proof indicating otherwise. Sunscreen commonly contains nanoparticle titanium dioxide or nanoparticle zinc oxide. In the water, nano sunscreens wash off people’s bodies and affect our aquatic biome. Even in very low concentrations, studies show that zinc oxide nanoparticles, cause significant disruption in sea life (

If you are using a mineral sunscreen, zinc or titanium, make sure it is non-nano grade.

Oxybenzone, aka Benzophenone

This most commonly-used ingredient in FDA approved sunscreens, oxybenzone (aka benzophenone-3) is linked to endocrine disordersorgan system toxicity, contact allergies, and photoallergies. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), 97 percent of Americans have this chemical circulating in their bodies. To be noted, oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 is not to be confused with benzophenone, which is yet another common sunscreen chemical ingredient. Needless to say, oxybenzone is equally harmful to aquatic life and in 2018, Hawaii banned it to protect coral reefs.

Avobenzone, aka benzophenone

Found in FDA approved chemical-based sunscreens, avobenzone is often used as an alternative to oxybenzone. This carcinogenic ingredient works the same as oxybenzone and has similar risks to endocrine disorders, organ system toxicity, contact allergies, and photoallergies.  

Formaldehyde, Diazolidinyl urea, Quaternium-15, DMDM Hydantoin and Hydroxymethylglycinate

Classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, formaldehyde is an ingredient not outright listed, but many of the preservatives that have been used as substitutes release formaldehyde! Diazolidinyl urea, Quaternium-15, DMDM Hydantoin and Hydroxymethylglycinate are all formaldehyde releasers. Besides being toxic to the human body, it is also an ecotoxin.


A common sunscreen ingredient that absorbs UVB rays, homosalate accumulates in the body faster than it is eliminated and is linked to hormone disruption. Besides sunscreen, this ingredient is also found in bug sprays and may increase the absorption of pesticides. Due to health concerns, FDA limits this ingredient to less than 10% in any formula. Since homosalate is not degradable, it is considered to be persistent in the environment.


Widely used as a preservative, methylisothiazolinone is an irritant associated with allergic reactions. Besides being considered an ecotoxin, lab studies suggest that it may also be a neurotoxin.


Microbeads are most commonly used in cleansers, exfoliants, and toothpastes. Being so small, they go unfiltered through most wastewater treatment plants and end up in the environment. Microbeads have been found in fish and other aquatic species.


Causing allergic reactions especially in those with sensitive skin, octocrylene is a synthetic UV absorber and SPF booster. It has been found to bio-accumulate in the body and may potentially induce adverse effects on the endocrine system as well as having allergic and/or photoallergic reactions.

Octinoxate, Octyl methoxycinnamate

Octinoxate is another FDA approved and common sunscreen ingredient as an UV filter. It is not only absorbed through the skin, but having been found in urine, blood, and breast milk, it has been proven to also be systematically absorbed. Besides being an endocrine disruptor that can mimic hormones, it is an environmental disruptor, as well. Octinoxate is known to be a direct cause for coral bleaching.


Parabens may be listed as: propylparaben, benzylparaben, methylparaben and butylparaben. Parabens are inexpensive preservatives, preventing the growth of molds, bacteria, and yeast in personal care products like shampoos, lotions, and sunscreens. Parabens can mimic the body’s hormones like estrogen and have been known to contribute to breast cancer. If the label does not clearly state “paraben-free,” be sure to read the ingredients.


Mostly in synthetic fragrances, phthalates are endocrine disruptors that may also interfere with normal brain function. Mainly blocking male hormones, phthalates can disrupt normal genitalia development, as well as cause low sperm and testosterone levels in adult males.

Retinyl Palmitate

Retinyl palmitate is essentially palmitic acid and retinol (Vitamin A) and often found in many cosmetic and skin care products. With exposure to sunshine and UV light, the retinol compounds release toxins that can damage the skin. Extensive, daily skin application of vitamin A creams may also bio-accumulate to a toxic level, according to the FDA.

Cyclopentasiloxane or Cyclomethicone

Cyclopentasiloxane is a silicone-based ingredient commonly found in skin and hair care products that help polish, soften, and smooth. Environmental concerns in aquatic organisms, as well as health concerns (reproductive and endocrine) are being examined.


With the increase use of consumer electronics, blue light, also known as HEV light, penetrates deeper than ultraviolet rays and has been found to obstruct normal cellular functions and increase hyperpigmentation, both contributing to premature skin aging. Typically sunscreens contain only titanium and zinc oxide, which protect against UVA and UVB rays. But, this is not enough in today’s world. According to results of a study in The Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, iron oxides provide enhanced protection against HEV or blue light, especially when combined with zinc oxide.

Key Take-Aways

Look not only for broad-spectrum sunscreen which provides protection against UVA and UVB rays, but also for sunscreen with iron oxides which protect against blue light. Pay attention to the ingredients and stay away from the harmful chemicals listed above. Ultimately, with up to 2% difference in protection, SPF 30 is almost as effective as SPF 60 or higher when applied thickly every 2-3 hours, especially after coming out of the water. Protect your skin all 365 days of the year. Be aware of your skin type and visit your dermatologist annually to screen for skin cancer. Wear protective clothing, including sunglasses and hats during the summer, and try to avoid being in the sun during peak hours. As long as preventative measures are being taken, there’s no reason to still enjoy the sun and soak up that Vitamin D.

Our Favorite Products to Protect You Against Harmful Rays

Click below and shop our favorite sunscreen product brands, Puraveda and Earth Mama, which contain non-nano zinc and iron oxides to protect your skin against blue light and ultraviolet rays.

Our Favorite Resources for this Article and Beyond:

To stay up-to-date, we subscribe to the following newsletters, blogs, and sites. To learn more click below.

Friends of the Earth

National Institute for Health/NIH

Environmental Working Group/EWG

Made Safe

Chemsec SIN List

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Skin Commandments

food healthy wood nature

Simple rules for healthy, beautiful skin:

  1. Hydrate inside and out. Besides water, try green and herbal teas; they’re packed with antioxidants. Minimize your intake of caffeine and alcohol as they dehydrate and inflame tissue. Moisturize two times a day.
  2. Sleep is restorative and your skin regenerates and absorbs serums best while you sleep.
  3. Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, nuts and fish. Multivitamins are great to supplement any nutrient gaps, but the goal is to intake most of your vitamins and minerals through fresh food. Minimize your intake of salt and processed foods/sugar.
  4. Exercise increases blood flow and gives your face a healthy glow. Don’t be afraid to sweat! Sweating rids the body of toxins and sheds dead skin cells so new ones can grow.
  5. Fresh air equals O2. Oxygen is essential to the health and maintenance of cells. It boosts blood flow, which has a domino effect on collagen and elastin tissue.
  6. Sun care 365 days, rain or shine.
  7. Hands off your face.
  8. Exfoliate weekly.
  9. If you smoke, quit. Never quit quitting smoking. Try and try again with patches, gum, hypnotherapy, or read Allen Carr’s The Easy Way to Stop Smoking.
  10. Smile! It immediately brightens your appearance and creates positive thinking.
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Fitzpatrick Skin Types

Created in 1972 by Thomas Fitzpatrick, this skin scale is still widely used in dermatology. The scale ranges from I to VI and helps determine the individual’s likelihood of tanning or burning, thus an individual’s susceptibility to skin cancer. Generally, a lower Fitzpatrick skin type indicates skin that burns more easily than it tans, while a higher Fitzpatrick skin type indicates the opposite.

Knowing your skin type determines which treatments and products are effective for you. For example, when having laser or light based procedures performed, those with skin types IV and above would not benefit as much and possibly even with pigmentation side effects. There is criticism that the Fitzpatrick scale is not broad enough, however, it remains adequate in establishing baseline data.

Burning and tanning descriptions of Fitzpatrick Skin Types I - VI


Answer the questions below and add the points

Eye colorlight blue, grey, greenblue, grey, greenbluedark brownbrownish black
Natural hair color?sandy, redblondechestnut, dark blondedark brownblack
Color of non-exposed skin?reddishvery palepale with beige tintlight browndark brown
Freckles on unexposed areas?manyseveral fewincidentalnone
When you stay in the sun too long/Have you ever experienced…painful redness, blistering, peelingblistering followed by peelingburns sometimes followed by peelingrarely burnsnever burns
To what degree do you tan?hardly or not at alllight colored tanreasonable tantans easilyturns dark quickly
Do you tan after several hours after sun exposure?NeverSeldomSometimesOftenAlways
How does your face react to the sun?Very sensitiveSensitiveSome resistanceVery resistantNever had a problem
When did you last expose your skin to sun or a tanning booth/cream?More than 3 months ago2-3 months ago1 -2 months agoLess than 1 month agoLess than 2 weeks ago
Do you expose the area to be treated to the sun?NeverHardly everSometimesOftenAlways
1. Add down each column for subtotal.
2. Add subtotal across for grand total.
_____ +_____ +_____ + _____ +_____ =

What your score means:

Skin Type ScoreFitzpatrick Skin Type
over 30V-VI
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Collagen To The Rescue


As the most abundant protein in our bodies, collagen is like the glue that holds it all together from hair to toenails. Collagen is found in mammals (and other animals) as the structural foundation of skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and teeth. However, from the age of 25-30, the human body produces less and poorer quality collagen, resulting in saggy skin and weakened joints, as well as other health ailments.

Collagen is divided into several types depending on the structures they form. There are 28 different types of collagen that scientists have identified, the most common are types I through IV, with type I comprising over 90% of the collagen in the human body. Below is a chart describing the benefits of types 1 through IV, as well as types V and X.

Collagen Types & Benefits at a Glance

Collagen TypeDescriptionBenefitsSources
Type IUp to 90% of the collagen in your body is type I, which is found in skin, tendons, cartilage, vasculature, organs, connective tissues, and bones.Assists in wound healing, decreases cellulite, minimizes wrinkles and improves skin elasticity.Bovine peptides, egg whites, marine collagen, bone broth, protein-rich foods like beef and fish
Type II50% of cartilage is comprised of type II collagen as is the vitreous humour of the eye.Best absorbed through oral ingestion; benefits joint health.Bone broth, protein-rich foods like chicken, chicken cartilage, collagen protein powder
Type IIIProvides structure of organs, muscles, and blood vessels.Improves muscular structure, may aid in intestinal health and blood clotting. Bone broth, protein-rich foods like beef and fish, bovine collagen peptides, collagen protein powder
Type IVFiber-like collagen that supports kidney filtration as well as other organs.Improves multiple layers of skin health, assists also in wound healing and the digestive system.Egg whites and other protein rich foods; this type is very difficult to find in supplement form.
Type VFound in the tissue of the placenta, but also in layers of the skin and hair.Promotes eye health and supports neonatal development. Egg whites and other protein rich foods; collagen protein powder
Type XPlays a key role in bones and joints.Similar to type II, benefits bone and joint health.eggshells, collagen protein powder

Side Effects

Taking collagen is generally safe. Always talk to your doctor before starting any new supplements or increasing the use of any existing supplement. Although rare, considering every body is unique, side effects exist. Some may feel stomach discomfort like bloating, gas, or diarrhea, while others with allergies may find themselves more susceptible to reactions. People with allergies to foods like fish, shellfish, and eggs should avoid collagen supplements made with these ingredients. Otherwise, for most people, taking collagen supplements should not pose any significant health risks.

Supplementing your diet with collagen is not for the vain. As you see the benefits range from joints and bones to cell formation. Feel free to check the sources below to dive deeper into the subject. You will find, for most, collagen should be a staple in your diet just like Vitamin C.


The Collagen Family (

Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf (

Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis – PubMed (

Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial – PubMed (

Collagen type III deficiency in patients with rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms – PubMed (

Type V collagens of the human placenta: trimer alpha-chain composition, ultrastructural morphology and peptide analysis – PubMed (

The role of type X collagen in facilitating and regulating endochondral ossification of articular cartilage – PubMed (